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I was reading a book "how to think like Sherlock Holmes". I have read few pages only and found that how we can easily remember things and situations by observing them.

Can we use the same method or alike to remember textual information? Like : person name, vocab etc.

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I believe : if we hear some text from someone, instead of reading, then we can remember it for comparatively long time using observation. Like, if I concentration on his voice, pitch, how he looks like when speak, on which statement/word he emphasized most etc. –  articlestack Apr 19 '13 at 1:02
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I'm not sure how you can use observation directly to remember textual information, but you can use mnemonics, like the Roman Room technique. To remember a list of words or concepts you imagine a room (e.g. your own living room) and associate certain objects in that room with the words you want to learn. To recall the words you look around the room in your mind a go past each of the objects.

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I'll preface this by saying I'm a creative professional, so for me, the world is intensely visual. I tend to think that pictures are often the best way to communicate, and as @THelper notes, many mnemonic techniques are based on visualization.

As to your question, I know that a lot of speedreading courses teach you to silence your inner voice...the one that reads the word back to you silently as you look at it...and instead train yourself to look at the word(s) and visualize the meaning. While I've not been very successful as silencing my inner voice, I do know that when I make an effort, I ~do~ tend to read faster and retain more.

Simple observation, as Holmes said, is the key to remembering things. Perhaps observing the CONTEXT rather than just reading the content can lead to a more Holmes-like interaction with textual information.

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