David Allen describes a pretty nice system in the Getting Things Done Book. There's also Merlin Mann's Inbox Zero concept. In both cases, they describe a folder like structures - one that is simple and not "byzantine" (complicated and deep).
While Mail.app does not inherently have something as specific as you describe you might be able to alter your workflow a bit and maybe move outside the inbox as a to-do list?
You can set rules and build smart folders. You could have a rule on a folder that sends a message back to your inbox in a certain number of days; the problem being that it's not a message specific concept.
The smart folder structure Merlin discusses in inbox zero is basically a countdown to destruction. You could have a smart folder that moves message to a different folder after a 7 day, then to another after 30, 60, 90 before just automatically deleting it.
I tried for a while to have an "actions" folder in Mail.app and that just didn't work.
But, luckily, I also have a lot of to-do items that don't come to me via e-mail in the first place. So, I started using Reminders pretty exclusively for all my to-dos - up to and including action items derived from e-mails - with a note to reply to so-and-so, when done.
- I like David Allen's two minute rule a great deal; so, messages I want to reply to, but will take longer than two minutes, go into a "reply" folder. And, when I have more than a couple of minutes (just processing the inbox), I'll look at the folder. Again, Merlin goes a step farther by having multiples that countdown from each other, but I don't get enough urgent e-mails to bother.
Given where you are at, what you are trying to accomplish, and the tools you seem to have, I would start by not using the e-mail application as a to-do list. It's kind of an Apple/Unix model of thinking - one tool, doing one thing, and only one thing. That's why Reminders.app is no longer built into Calendar.app and was never a part of Mail.app - unlike the Microsoft equivalent Outlook.
So, to sum up: No, I don't think there is a way to flag a message to disappear and reappear in the inbox at a certain point in time with Mail.app; however, you can probably get similar behavior using a combination of folders, rules, and changes in your inbox checking workflow (ex. check 7 day old folder, 10 day old folder, etc.). Lastly, you may consider modifying your workflow a bit more to take advantage of Mail.app, Reminders.app, and Calendar.app as an integrated productivity solution - all native, all work together, and all built for a specific purpose (including reminding you to do something at a certain time).
I use rules to filter/move the "unimportant" stuff either deleting it, moving it to a folder (payment confirmations for bills), and subscriptions - huge gain in the inbox staying at zero; so, I don't actually have to do step 3 every time I scan the inbox.
When I get an e-mail with an action associated - I just hop to Reminders and put the action there (or I have Siri add it for me real quick if I'm on the phone).
I have a "review" and "reply" folder for the "not nows" - but you could also use a list in Reminders called "message" (I have that as well for messages I want to send without being prompted by an e-mail first).
It's all pretty seamless to go from the tablet, to the laptop, to the phone, and back again. Especially with iCloud and Google integration for Calendar and Mail (and I actually think Reminders as well). And they're all native apps that can't be deleted.